英文契約のForce Majeure条項について

Force Majeure(又、impossibility, rights to cancellation等)の意味は、いずれの当事者も地震・供水・戦争等の、当事者のコントロールできない事情による不履行について責任を負わないということ。日本語では「不可抗力」という。条項の大事なポイントは不可抗力事由のリスト化である。

例えば:
暴動、戦争、ストライキ- uprising, war, strike
法律、命令または規則の変更- laws and regulations
天災、供水- act of god, flood
以下は簡単なサンプルとその和訳。

サンプル1:
英文:
Neither A nor B shall be liable for breach of this agreement caused by circumstances beyond A or B’s reasonable control.
和訳:
AもBも、合理的に制御できない状況に起因する、一方が本契約で確定された義務を違反することに関する責任を負わない。

サンプル2:
英文:
Neither party shall be liable for failure or delay in performance of any obligation, or in satisfying any of the terms and conditions under of this Agreement, if and to the extent such delay or failure in performance arise from Acts of God, war, strikes or other labor disputes, terrorist activity, accident in transportation, shortage of materials which can not be replaced, or laws, regulations or orders of any central or local government, or by any other cause beyond reasonable control of such party to perform; provided, however, that the party having so failed or delayed in performance shall exercise its best efforts to remove such cause, and after such cause has been removed, shall immediately rectify such failure or delay. Either party may terminate this Agreement if a force majeure event continues for more than ninety (60) days.

和訳:
いずれの当事者も相手方に対し、本契約における義務の不履行または遅延が、暴動、内戦、戦争、国家間の敵対行為、政府の法律、命令または規則、通商の禁止、政府またはその機関による強制措置、天災、火災、ストライキ、サボタージュ、疫病その他事故の合理的なコントロールを超える事由によって生じた場合は、その事由が継続する期間、かかる不履行及び遅延につき責任を負わない。その事由がなくなった場合、両当事者が本契約における義務を直ちに履行しなければならない。また、かかる事由が60日間以上継続する場合、両当事者が本契約を解除することができる。

以下は様々な英文契約書から抜粋したForce Majeure条項例。

リース契約
Any prevention, delay or stoppage due to strikes, lockouts, labor disputes, rain or other inclement weather, acts of God, inability to obtain services, labor, or materials or reasonable substitutes therefor, governmental actions or inactions, including, without limitation, any delays in obtaining permits or approvals from the applicable governmental authorities, civil commotions, fire or other casualty, and other causes beyond the reasonable control of the party obligated to perform, except with respect to the obligations imposed on Tenant under the Tenant Work Letter (unless and to the extent TI Force Majeure Delays extend the Lease Commencement Date as specifically provided and subject to the restrictions contained in Section 4.6 of the Tenant Work Letter) or with regard to Rent and other charges to be paid by Tenant pursuant to this Lease, or monetary amounts required to be paid by Landlord pursuant to this Lease (collectively, the “Force Majeure”), notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Lease, shall excuse the performance of such party for a period equal to any such prevention, delay or stoppage and, therefore, if this Lease specifies a time period for performance of an obligation of either party, that time period shall be extended by the period of any delay in such party’s performance caused by a Force Majeure.

ソフトウェアのライセンス契約
Neither party to this Agreement shall be liable for its failure to perform any of its obligations hereunder during any period in which such performance is delayed by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including but not limited to: fire, act of nature, or, embargo, riot or the intervention of any government authority, provided that the party suffering such delay promptly notifies the other party of the delay.

サービス契約
Neither party is liable for, and will not be considered in default or breach of this Agreement on account of, any delay or failure to perform as required by this Agreement as a result of any causes or conditions that are beyond such party’s reasonable control, provided that the party whose performance is affected gives prompt notice to the other of the
force majeure condition, and proceeds diligently to remedy such condition. No party shall be required to settle any labor dispute except in its sole discretion.

ソフトウェアメンテナンス契約
XIMAGE shall not be liable for any failure or delay in performing its obligation hereunder due to any cause beyond its reasonable control, including without limitation, fire, accident, acts of public enemy, war, rebellion, labor dispute or unrest, insurrection, sabotage, transportation delays (other than administrative oversights), shortage of raw material, energy or machinery, acts of God, government or the judiciary.

プロフェショナルサービス契約(シンプルな例)
Neither party will be considered to be in default of this agreement as a result of events beyond their reasonable control. For purposes of this Agreement, such acts shall include, but are not limited to, acts of God, catastrophe, or other “force majeure” events beyond the parties’ reasonable control.

コスト・シェアリング契約
Except as may be otherwise specifically provided in this Agreement, neither party shall be in default under this Agreement if and to the extent that any failure or delay in such party’s performance of one or more of its obligations hereunder is caused by any of the following conditions, and such party’s performance of such obligation or obligations shall be excused and extended for and during the period of any such delay: act of God; fire; flood; fiber or cable shortages not resulting from a party’s failure to place timely orders therefor; government codes, ordinances, laws, rules, regulations or restrictions; war or civil disorder; failure of a third party to recognize a Required Right; any other cause beyond the reasonable control of such party and, in the case of Grantor, a Grantee Delay Event (each a “Force Majeure Event”). The party claiming relief under this Article shall notify the other in writing of the existence of the event relied on and the cessation or termination of said event.

サービス契約
Neither party will be considered to be in default of this agreement as a result of events beyond their reasonable control. For purposes of this Agreement, such acts shall include, but are not limited to, acts of God, catastrophe, or other “force majeure” events beyond the parties’ reasonable control. If any delay in performance due to force majeure continues for a period of thirty (30) days or more, either party shall have the right to terminate this Agreement immediately upon written notice.

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